Monday, July 21, 2008

DNA profiling is never too old

Prime Minister Abdullah Haji Ahmad has urged opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim to give his blood sample for a DNA test and prove his innocence, saying that the police want to complete their investigations as soon as possible but was unable to do so because of Anwar's "unwillingness" to co-operate.
Anwar, who is facing sodomy allegations as claimed in the police report by his former employee, refused to entertain any request for blood samples because he believed that the police would fabricate evidence against him. He said the police can look at his DNA profile taken some 10 years ago when he faced similar charge.
However, Abdullah or Pak Lah, who is not an expert in this subject, claimed that the DNA "sample" mentioned by Anwar "is too old, so they need a new sample, what is wrong in giving?"
You are not entirely correct, Pak Lah. DNA or Deoxyribonucleic Acid, a complex chemical substance found in the nucleus of each cell and carries information required for the development of an individual, remains the same and will never be too old.
I was privileged to accompany former de-facto law minister Dr. Rais Yatim when he visited the Department of Chemistry Malaysia, Petaling Jaya, in particular the DNA section under its Forensic Division where the minister was briefed on the subject by the experts including serology/DNA head Primulapathi Jaya. The serology/DNA section is tasked to identify evidence through DNA profiling.
DNA profiling is a technique implemented in forensic laboratories all over the world and can be applied to determine whether evidentiary biological substances found at the crime scene came from the suspect, victim or both. Materials that can be subjected to DNA analysis are substances that are biological in nature and not necessarily from blood, but from saliva, urine, tears, nail, hair and bone.
In October 2003, the government was scheduled to table the DNA Identification Act in Parliament, however it did not do so. The proposed Act would allow police and the Chemistry Department to quickly trace and confirm suspects in cases of rape, murder and other violent crimes. The Act will allow the Chemistry Department to set up a data bank to store DNA profiles of convicts and suspects.
The Act would also empower police to collect blood specimens or take oral swaps from convicted criminal and suspects to be stored in the data bank, to be known as Forensic DNA Data Bank of Malaysia. It will be a fully integrated law enforcement system of DNA records and will establish four files of DNA records for population, forensic (crime stains) index, convicted offender index and missing persons index.
The Anwar Ibrahim episode (of not giving his blood specimen) will not be a legal hindrance had the DNA Act tabled in Parliament in October 2003. It is five years too late for the government to regret.
The DNA Act was then actively pursued by Dr Rais, however, after the 2004 general elections, he was moved to the Culture, Arts and Heritage Ministry and the law portfolio handed over to Radzi Sheikh Ahmad, then to Nazri Aziz and now to Zaid Ibrahim.
Why was the DNA Act kept in cold storage by the government? Who is responsible? Is it Radzi, Nazri, or Gani Patail (the AG)?

16 comments:

INTIP said...

Tuan Syed,
Better be late than never. I think the curent Minister incharged of Law portfolio should act immediately to table the proposed DNA Identification Act to the Parliament.
We want to see a full support from back-benchers as well as the Oppositions. Or would it be otherwise?

pecintakeamanan said...

Salam,

DNA memanglah boleh dimanipulasikan, kerana antara masalah utama yang terdapat di dalam DNA database adalah kejituannya didalam mengenal pasti seseorang individu itu. Antara masalah yang lain adalah penggunaan nama individu yang lain untuk bukti DNA ataupun nama orang yang tidak pernah wujud langsung.

Disebabkan itu orang ramai mula mengesyaki penyalahgunaan sampel DNA oleh pihak polis ke atas kes-kes tertentu.

Walau bagaimanapun, bukti DNA mungkin boleh dibawa dan digunakan di mahkamah, ataupun pihak defendan boleh meminta bantuan pakar untuk pengesahan kejituan bukti sampel DNA berkenaan, ataupun reliabiliti bukti-bukti berkenaan bersama-sama bukti yang lain (saksi, bukti-bukti tempat kejadian dan sebagainya) akhirnya membenarkan mahkamah membuat justifikasi dimana semua orang harus mematuhi keputusannya.

Kita kini sedang berkata berkenaan sistem sama yang menyabitkan DSAI berdasarkan bukti-bukti yang tidak sebegitu kukuh lagi yang didapati daripada Azizan pada kes sodominya yang terdahulu.

Dalam apa jua kes, penafian terhadap sebarang cadangan yang beliau (DSAI) nafikan walaupun dibolehkan doktor beliau sendiri ada bersama dan juga pertubuhan pasukan forensik yang bebas untuk sampel DNA beliau diambil, sampai bila kes ini akan berakhir?

Adakah Anwar ingin mendapatkan perhatian daripada seluruh dunia untuk mengadili kesnya? Ini secara tidak langsung akan memberi impak yang mendalam terhadap kerajaan dan negara malaysia itu sendiri, sejurusnya banyak kesan negatif akan timbul yang akan menjejaskan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan keamanan negra yagn dipelihara sekian lama oleh pemimpin-pemimpin terdahulu.

Bobbin Root said...

but I don't get it..isn't it Anwar who keeps screaming about fabrication of evidence last time around? and to a certain extent, his voice was heard and he was acquitted on the very evidence ground too. so why is he saying now that the police can just refer to his DNA sample of 10 years ago? isn't it better, in any case, to give new one and at the same time, make use of the international limelight on him to scrutinize the investigation of this cas?

Syed Imran said...

He said he did not trust the police. He has no problem with the Hospital authorities nor the Chemistry Department.

jojo51 said...

We have to understand DSAI. He is very cunning and a great manipulator. Even when he was in the government he manipulated everyone. It is no different now. All his close associates have left him, Dr Chandara Muzaffar, Ruslan Kassim, Ezam Mohamad and many others when they discovered the true DSAI.

If he sincerely believe that he is innocent, why afraid to give his DNA. Please dont use excuses of fabrication on DNA result. All the 10 judges (including the Appeal Court Judges) never said that the evidences in the 1998 case were fabricated. DSAI claims of fabrication of evidences have never been substantiated.

Anonymous said...

You speak to any respectable doctor and he will say you dont need to take a new blood sample once you have done the test for DNA.There is case decided by Justice Vohra that the consent of the person concerned must be obtained before going for DNA test. Anwar will be a big fool if he were to allow without taking the necessary precautions as it is an open secret that the doctors sadly will write reports the way police wants esp in a high profile case. It has happened. Many medical people know that. Anyway DNA test will not be conlusive to find Anwar guilty. Very sad we are discussing this sodomy issue as they are many important national matters that we must address our minds i.e corruption,economy etc etc.

Bung Karno said...

Pak Habib,

If Anwar insist the the old case was trumped up, then he should give his blood for new DNA test. By legal means, he can keep dupicate sample for safe keeping and reproduce to rebuff any tampering of the other sample.

But now Anwar has picked up another spat... with HKL, claiming that he was sripped naked and his anu fonddled for measurement.

The lady HKL Pengarah has denied.

Who should be stripped naked for not telling the truth ?

Anonymous said...

Adakah DNA yang akan di ambil tidak boleh di manipulasikan ?
Kalau jawapannya boleh, maka itu sebabnya DSA tidak bersetuju.
Sering kita dengar bagaimna selepas peristiwa suspek ditembak dan kemudian apabila suspek mati pihak polis menjumpai senjata yang merbahaya, termasuk senjata api.
Siapa yang dapat pastikan bahawa senjata itu dibawa oleh simati?
Kita tidak menuduh pihak polis yang meletakkan senjata itu.Tetapi,kalau Memang PDRM yang letakkannya disisi si Mati siapa yang dapat pastikan?
kenapa perlunya PDRM berberbuat demikian? Ha...tentulah ada motifnya.
-Bekas Polisi.

Anonymous said...

DNA sahaja tidak dapat membuktikan samada kes liwat berlaku atau tidak, terdapat beberapa kaedah dan bukti lain yang perlu dibuktikan oleh pihak pendakwaraya. Anwar sendiri memperbesarkan isu DNA sedangkan polis masih 'cool' - kluangman

shastrishah said...

Tuan,

I wish the mainstream media can throw some light on this DNA issue. The media should also educate the readers and not just dish ot propaganda stuff. People like you go deep into research and come up with explanations that people can understand. Good work Tuan!

MEDIA WATCH
shastrishah.blogspot.com

askar melayu said...

Encik Syed

I got the impression that to Anwar everybody is cheating except for him. He is the only one that is whiter than white. No one can be trusted but him. Not the police, the judges, the doctors, the civil servants and even the army but him, the chosen one. One can only look back at history to see who he really is.

What's wrong with giving your DNA sample again? It's like you're against the Hudud because it cuts off your limb. But if you're innocent, even if the law says cut your head, you wouldn't care.

Jeffri said...

Memang DNA yang berjuta tahun masih lagi boleh dianalisis. Sekarang ni ramai yang tertanya2 mengapa perlu diambil DNA untuk kali kedua. Untuk pengetahuan semua, sampel DNA harus diambil kerana kes liwat ni kes baru. Ianya tidak ada kaitan dengan kes liwat 1998 walaupun tertuduh adalah orang yang sama. Pak Lah nak buktikan kepada umum bahawa beliau tak terlibat dengan kes liwat yang terdahulu. Beliau juga mahu rakyat tau dalam menangani kes macam ni bukan boleh tuduh sesuka hati dengan menggunakan sampel DNA 1998 dulu untuk dikaitkan dengan kes ini. Kes liwat terbaru ini harus dimulakan dengan bahan baru. Rakyat juga harus sedar Pak Lah dah banyak beralah dengan Anwar dalam kes ni. Salah satu daripada ialah dengan memberi jaminan bahawa Gani Patail dan Musa Hasan tidak akan terlibat langsung dalam pertuduhan baru ini. Sekarang ni yang mendatangkan masalah ialah Anwar yang terlalu degil untuk memberi sampel DNAnya. Kenapa beliau takut sangat agaknya kalau benar beliau tidak bersalah? Pelik tak?

Syed Imran said...

Saya setuju supaya Anwar memberi apa yang patut untuk merekod profil DNAnya termasuk contoh darah.

Semasa melawat Jabatan Kimia pada 2003, saya difahamkan bahawa profil DNA adalah jauh lebih berkesan dan tepat berbanding cap jari.

Dalam hubungan kes ini, profil DNA kedua-dua pihak, yang membuat tuduhan dan yang kena tuduh, boleh dikesan pada orang yang membuat tuduhan. Pihak Jabatan Kimia boleh mengesahkan sama ada terdapat kesan DNA orang yang kena tuduh dengan membandingkan dengan profil DNAnya yang diambil 10 tahun lalu, jika masih dalam simpanan jabatan itu.

Apa yang saya fahami, Anwar (jika dia berada pada pihak kebenaran) mungkin bimbang setitis darah boleh diletakkan (oleh polis) ditempat yang boleh dijadikan bukti untuk mengesan DNAnya. Inilah alasan yang diberikan oleh beliau dan sekiranya dia tidak bersalah, maka ia adalah satu penganiayaan, tetapi jika dia benar-benar terlibat, seharusnya dia dihukum.

askar melayu said...

Precisely what I mentioned earlier, Encik Syed. Everybody else will cheat except him.

Anonymous said...

Salam Tuan Syed,

Ilmu forensik dapat membezakan DNA dari sumber darah atau cecair "semen/air mani" dengan tepat. Darah dapat dikenalpasti melalui bahan kimia luminol yang bertindak balas dengan ion besi (Ferum) di dalam darah untuk menghasilkan warna fluoresen.Sumber DNA dari "semen/air mani" dapat dikenalpasti kerana ianya mempunyai kandungan protin yang tinggi dan dapat disahkan dengan teknik asid fosfatase dan lain-lain teknik susulan. Yang pastinya sukar berlaku manipulasi dengan mengatakan darah DSAI akan diletakkan dimana-mana bahagian badan si pembuat laporan atau barangan peribadi milik beliau kerana sumber DNA tersebut dapat dikenalpasti dengan tepat. Ketepatan teknik DNA "fingerprinting" adalah 99.9999..% jikalau ianya dilakukan oleh pakar forensik terlatih. Kebiasaanya pakar forensik tidak mengetahui sumber sampel yang diberikan oleh pihak berkuasa kerana hanya diberikan dengan hanya diletakkan kod tertentu, apabaila selesai ujian barulah perbandingan dibuat oleh pihak berkuasa dalam menentukan siapakah pemilik DNA yang mempunyai padanan yang sama daripada lokasi dimana kejadian itu dilaporkan berlaku. Bagi saya berani kerana benar dan takut kerana salah. Saya juga bersetuju dengan pendapat tuan Syed, Malaysia tidak mempunyai pengkalan data DNA yang sah dari segi undang-undang untuk tujuan pendakwaan.Untuk itu setiap kes perlu kepada sampel baru supaya semua bukti semasa perbicaraan adalah diperolehi dan didapati melalui terma undang-undang Malaysia.

Teropongjauh

Diver.Miskin said...

Salam,

Anwar xnak bagi sampel DNA tu pasti bersebab... Anwar nie licik beb... Setiap tindakan dia tu bersebab... saya rasa la... dia nak tunggu polis sendiri cakap bukti DNA kes 98 dulu tu tak sah... secara tak langsung, polis dah mengaku kes 98 tu adalah tidak sah kerana bukti yang tidak sah... maka berjaya la Anwar buktikan kes 98 dulu tu adalah konspirasi... so lepas tu bleh la dia saman kerajaan pasal tahan dia tanpa sebab... agak-agaknya la kot